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People like to gossip. It appears that we do not learn only about extraordinary experience made by others but also about more trivial things such as dressing style (De Backer et al., 2007). For both settings, the comparative fit index (work setting: CFI = 0.97; private setting: CFI = 0.99) and the root mean square error of approximation [work setting: RMSEA = 0.07 [90% CI:0.05, 0.08]; private setting: RMSEA = 0.03 [90% CI:0.00, 0.05]] were in the acceptable range. In addition, the ANOVA yielded a significant interaction effect when using the Huynh-Feldt corrected statistics, F(4.30, 665) = 2.29, p = 0.05, P2 = 0.02. The authors say this is related to our desire to be seen positively by others and fit in socially, regardless of whether this reflects what were actually feeling. NIum den Ruf der abwesenden Person zu schdigen. (2014). The ones who werent interested in the goings on of other people sort of got weeded out.. B., Niederhoffer, K., and Swann, W. B. Jr. (2006). Hum. Unpacking evil: claiming the core of the Dark Triad. Appl. Read on to learn the top 10 types of gossip. The three items were chosen based on consideration about the content and wording as well as on factor loadings obtained through a pre-study (N = 45). doi: 10.1080/10887150902886423, De Backer, C. J., Nelissen, M., Vyncke, P., Braeckman, J., and Mcandrew, F. T. (2007). Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1948550619837000. In contrast, relationship building (M = 3.16, SD = 1.70), protection (M = 3.10, SD = 1.58), and social enjoyment (M = 2.83, SD = 1.64) did not differ significantly from each other (ps = 0.351.0). Gossip in the workplace and the implications for HR management: a study of gossip and its relationship to employee cynicism. J. Despite important social functions gossip has a rather negative reputation. Curiously, specifically in a professional setting, people scoring high on narcissism tend to gossip more for social enjoyment reasons than people scoring low on narcissism. They criticize to nitpick and demean you, not to empower you. Remembering an event depends in part on the depth and elaboration of the encoding process of the event. In addition, individuals scoring higher on the dark triad value themselves over the others (Jonason et al., 2015), are less concerned with others' welfare (Djeriouat and Trmolire, 2014; Jonason et al., 2015; Noser et al., 2015) and with fairness (Jonason et al., 2015). 3) You have a good sense of humor Not only do you like to laugh, but you like to make people laugh. doi: 10.1177/1745691616666070, Nathanson, C., Paulhus, D. L., and Williams, K. M. (2006). Relatsh. 52, 449453. Nat. Hurt. Internal consistency was highly satisfactory for all subscales (see Figure 1) and, if applicable, comparable to those of Beersma and Van Kleef (2012). Gossiping gives people a sense of power. 40, 635. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.40.4.635. Heres how to make sure youre gossiping in a responsible, trustworthy way: Whether youre gossiping in a responsible way or not is all a matter of when youre doing it and with whom youre sharing the information, McAndrew says. Old Medication, New Use: Can Prazosin Curb Drinking? Human Evolutionary Psychology. 19, 378394. Positive gossip. One might argue that this positive view on gossip arises due to data flawed by participants' tendency to socially desirable responding. As the Lead Pastor, my husband began hearing second, third, and fourth-hand accounts of questionable behavior on the part of his associate. 34, 13031314. Fifteen percent of gossip is negative while the remaining 10% is positive or flattering. Some people gossip to seek revenge. A meta-analysis of the Dark Triad and work behavior: a social exchange perspective. The most important motive was validating information about the gossip target followed by the motive to acquire new information about the gossip target. The Apostle Paul warned Timothy, pastor of the church at Ephesus, not to put young women on the widows list, because if they are on the list, they may learn to be lazy and will spend their time gossiping from house to house, meddling in other peoples business and talking about things they shouldnt. (1 Timothy 5:13). What makes the prayer request gossip so insidious is that gossip is couched in spiritual sounding words like, we all need to pray for him.. If you arent from the South, this one might not make sense to you. There are no gender effects for narcissism (women M = 4.33, SD = 2.07 vs. men M = 4.73, SD = 1.68; t(132) = 1.19, p = 0.24, Cohen's d = 0.21) and Machiavellianism (women M = 3.30, SD = 1.72 vs. men M = 3.54, SD = 1.88; t(132) = 0.76, p = 0.45, Cohen's d = 0.13). RBum das Vertrauen der Person, mit der ich geredet habe, zu gewinnen. To make it even more complicated, it is plausible to assume that people have different motives at the same time. Public Adm. 85, 641665. Gossiping comes naturally and most of the time occurs almost unconsciously to break up the monotony of routine activities or simply to spice up conversations. The reason most often cited? Groomin, Gossip and the Evolution of Language. J. Appl. Psychol. Article Images Copyright , How to Biblically Celebrate New Life in the Spring, California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. This is because they need constant reassurance and validation from others. (2016). In contrast, the Bayes factor (BF) provided in Bayesian analysis is comparative as it weighs the support for one model against that of another. J. You have reached your limit of 4 free articles. Gossiping as moral social action: a functionalist account of gossiper perceptions, in Social Cognition and Communication, , eds J. P. Forgas, O. Vincze and J. Laszlo (New York, NY: Psychology Press), 185202. (2012). Also, it is likely that work and private setting differ on a competitiveness-cooperativeness dimension. Tell me the gossip: the self-evaluative function of receiving gossip about others. They are, however, highly similar to bivariate correlations displayed in Table 1. As outlined earlier, gossip appears to be a painless-and-quick mean to get information about the social surrounding and oneself; either by explicitly using gossip to validate and gather information or by trying to foster relationships in order to have an audience to act. When we engage in bitter-vengeful gossip we dont simply want vindication for wrongs done to us (real or perceived); we want vengeance. (2012). (2018a). The identity in turn emerges in part from information provided by the social environment (Baumeister, 1997, 1998; Fiske, 2004; Jones and Paulhus, 2011). Psychonomic Bull. Talking about other people gives an individual a sense of relief because he or she is not experiencing the same calamities. How can you prevent yourself and others from prayer request gossip? People tend to think of gossip as synonymous with malicious rumors, put-downs or the breathless propagation of a tabloid scoop. A lot of gossip is driven by concern for others and has positive, social effects., Work from his group has also found that engaging in gossip can actually temper some of our frustrations and other negative emotions we feel when we find out someone has behaved in a deviant way. More specifically, we investigate whether individuals scoring high on the dark triad personality traits are more ready to use gossip in order to harm others and to serve themselves, thereby, contributing to the negative reputation of gossip. Psychol. My husband taught me the delicate balance of venting, without becoming a gossip. Psychol. Exp. Research demonstrates that gossip is emotionally rewarding. 55, 323. In order to explore to what extent gossip motives can be generalized across situations, two different situations were incorporated in the study (i.e., private as well as workplace situations). Gossip as social comparison. Part I: theoretical advantages and practical ramifications. Which means they gossip. Miss Emily Grierson. Those who have the sickness of pride in their hearts speak of others' sins with contempt, irritation, frustration, or judgment. These traits may include: People are generally not all good or all bad, or all positive or all negative. Gossip and emotion in nursing and health-care organizations. Theres an intimacy to sharing experiences and feeling like youre on the same page about others, she points out. doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1323-7, Wagenmakers, E. J., Marsman, M., Jamil, T., Ly, A., Verhagen, J., Love, J., et al. Knowing what you value will help you build the most meaningful life possible. IVum unsere Gedanken ber die abwesende Person zu vergleichen. (2014). The vulnerable (covert) subtype is a less studied type of narcissism that presents with hypersensitivity, defensiveness, and even shyness. Most gossip was coded as neither positive or negative the majority of gossip recorded in this study (75 percent) was neutral. Gossiping also says something about the relationships people have with each other. And overall people who were more extroverted tended to gossip more than those who were more introverted. Leave the exaggeration at the door, Willer says. Whereas, individuals scoring high on psychopathy and Machiavellianism pursue goals of a concrete, instrumental nature, individuals scoring high on narcissism aim for goals that are of an abstract, symbolic nature (Jones and Paulhus, 2011, p. 258). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Sci. Brain Sci. Theres nothing less Christ-like than being a prayer request gossip. doi: 10.1348/096317905X40817, Waddington, K., and Fletcher, C. (2005). doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1204_1, Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Otgaar, H., and Meijer, E. (2017). The more narcissistic a person is, the more they tend to use gossip in order to validate information about others and also to gather information (at least in the work setting). Gossip and the Reasons Why We and Individuals With Dark Personalities Talk About Others. "Mean Girls" is arguably one of the most quotable comedies of all time, with the most iconic characters of all time. Int. Psychol. The dark triad personality traits were entered as independent variables and motives as dependent variables. Thats not a responsible way of sharing information. Its not necessarily negative, adds David Ludden, professor of psychology at Georgia Gwinnett College and the author of The Psychology of Language: An Integrated Approach. Bitter-vengeful gossip usually stems from being hurt or harmed. Soc. Pers. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.8.2.78, Foster, J. D., and Trimm, R. F. (2008). One might speculate that more Machiavellian individuals use gossip more strategically to gain long-term, higher order goals in domains of competition and performance (Jones and Paulhus, 2011). Its something that comes very naturally to us an integral part of conversation, information sharing and even community building. Nat. However, we have no specific hypotheses concerning the single dark triad traits. Each participant could contribute these points to their group in which case, the points would be doubled and redistributed equally or keep them for themselves. Gossip is actually one of the societal forces that brings us together and helps maintain social order. Even though the Dirty Dozen Scale has shown convergent validity with comprehensive measures, using more complex measures for the respective three traits would allow deeper insight into the associations. Dif. Psychol. For example, a cowardly character may finally find the bravery they need by the end of a story. (2010). doi: 10.1111/cdev.12169, Waddington, K. (2005). 74:1197. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.74.5.1197, Peng, X., Li, Y., Wang, P., Mo, L., and Chen, Q. Instead, they told a friend, who told a friend, who told my husband. These three traits are summarized under the umbrella term dark triad and gained considerable attention in the past years (Jones and Paulhus, 2011; OBoyle et al., 2012; Furnham et al., 2013; Jones and Figueredo, 2013; Lee et al., 2013; Book et al., 2015; Muris et al., 2017). They also wear their hearts on their sleeves, so it is very easy to tell whether they are happy or sad. Baumeister, R. F., Zhang, L., and Vohs, K. D. (2004). Thus, evaluating gossip as a rather positive or negative behavior is not as easy as it may appear at first sight. This is why this type of gossip is listed in the behaviors of the carnal, fleshly Christian. But if youve ever lived anywhere south of the Mason-Dixon line, you are already nodding your head. Means, standard deviation (in parenthesis), and error bars for the different motives displayed separately for work and private setting (N = 134). Creative Minds Press. And individuals with dark personalities are not known for their desire to appear or behave socially appropriate (e.g., Foster and Trimm, 2008). Neurosci. More specifically, it has been suggested and empirically shown that, at the dyadic level, sharing gossip is associated with friendship (Grosser et al., 2010; Watson, 2011; Ellwardt et al., 2012b) and even leads to the development of friendships (Ellwardt et al., 2012b; see also Bosson et al., 2006). Here's how to get better at it. But the bottom line is this: be aware of the fine line between venting emotions and tarnishing reputations. Isnt it okay to vent every now and then? broad-minded. When we . It can be positive or neutral.. There are three criteria that are characterize personality traits: (1) consistency, (2) stability, and (3) individual differences. So, keep on talking. Sci. Empirical research has already shown that gossip activity at the workplace depends on variables such as trust in management (Ellwardt et al., 2012c), psychological contract violations (Kuo et al., 2015), leadership (Kuo et al., 2015), ambiguity of formal communication within organizations (Crampton et al., 1998), and perceived stress and anxiety (Waddington and Fletcher, 2005). This research demonstrates that people want to fit in socially, and they also want others to see them in a positive light. I gossip, I'm judgemental, and I can be lazy. Group Organiz. Resour. Pers. Interpersonal chemistry through negativity: bonding by sharing negative attitudes about others. In the present study, we examined the differential importance of reasons to engage in gossip behavior. And Feinberg notes that there are some types of gossip that should be avoided, such as gossip that is purely harmful and serves no greater purpose like mean comments about someones looks. Step 2: Prioritise ONE Trait at a Time. To fill this void, there is nothing else he can find worth doing apart from yapping and gossiping about other people with the ultimate aim of gaining favours from those he is spreading gossip to. (2018b). Magazines, Digital More specifically, it is easy to imagine that individuals scoring higher on the dark triad readily use gossip to negatively influence another person's reputation (i.e., potential competitor or rival) to push through self-beneficial agendas. Gen. Psychol. The Bless Your Heart gossip shares juicy pieces of information, but tags on the line, bless his/her heart as a way of appearing compassionate and caring, when, in fact, they are neither compassionate nor caring. That means, when broadening the view and evaluating gossip not only with regard to social functions but also with regard the intention of the gossiper a positive impression of gossip emerges. Peters, K., and Kashima, Y. Gossip frequently involves inconsequential topics such as a coworkers new hairstyle, weight reduction, weight gain, or a recent trip to Vegas. Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.009, Martinescu, E., Janssen, O., and Nijstad, B. Specifically, they estimate that the average person spends 52 minutes per day gossiping. Filipinos have been described as friendly, outgoing, sensitive, easily offended, nosy, garrulous, direct, hospitable, feisty, irreverent, good natured, clever, witty, gregarious, happy, generous, easy to laugh, gracious, easy to befriend, casual, fun loving, sensitive and hospitable. Bull. Individ. A coworker took all the credit for a project you both worked on in a meeting with your boss. Megan Robbins, Assistant Professor of Psychology at UC, Riverside. Curiosity and control: on the determinants of the search for social knowledge. Extroverts are social, assertive, socially confident and love interacting with people.. Is this wrong? Reviewed by Davia Sills. In addition, we extended the questionnaire by widening the number of possible reasons including gossiping in order to foster relationship building and to gather social information. Years ago, one of the associate pastors of our church became the subject of gossip. Corp. Commun. Photo courtesy: Thinkstock/Wavebreakmedia. Gossip on social media tends to be more harmful because the negative information has a wide audience and remains visible for a long time. There are a number of explanations for this phenomenon. Also, post-hoc power analysis for the two regression analyses not reaching conventional levels of significance (i.e., for information gathering and protection in private setting) revealed that the F-tests did not achieve sufficient power (0.13 for protection and 0.58 for information gathering). Taken together, the organizational and occupational circumstances of participants might have been so different that potential effects due to the situation might have been blurred. Stud. Students with large appetites for success tend to have low tolerances for failure and might be unfair to themselves when they don't perform as well as they would like to. Back, M. D., Kfner, A. C., Dufner, M., Gerlach, T. M., Rauthmann, J. F., and Denissen, J. J. For the Scriptures say, I will take revenge ;I will pay them back, says the Lord. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2014.04.006, Mesoudi, A., Whiten, A., and Dunbar, R. (2006). While there are hundreds of different personality trait examples that describe a person, psychologists often list five main personality traits, called the Big Five. In contrast, the motives factor receives extreme support. : a social network perspective on workplace gossip. Soc. The study provides initial evidence that people primarily gossip to gain information about other people and not to harm others (Beersma and Van Kleef, 2012). Jonason and Schmitt (2012) claim narcissism to be the dark trait with the most social core (p. 402). So, yes, you're likable! 54, 93105. information, physical appearance, and achievement gossip in . PostedJune 24, 2021 People scoring higher on narcissism indicated information validation as a more important motive when talking about absent third parties than people scoring lower in narcissism both in work (p = 0.001) and private (p < 0.001) settings. All humans partake in some form, despite the age-old adage, If you have nothing nice to say, dont say anything at all. Whether its workplace chatter, the sharing of family news or group texts between friends, its inevitable that everyone who talks, well, talks about other people. Bull. Public Opin. Of course, talking about other peoples lives isnt always negative, nor is it always gossip; but it can be the gateway to meddling and gossip. In accordance with the national and institutional guidelines, ethical approval was not required for this study. Not one person with firsthand knowledge ever contacted my husband. It appears that people mainly gossip for informational reasons and only marginally to harm others. Yes! J. Appl. Third, the order in which participants had to report on gossip in a work and in a private setting was not varied between participants. 22, 420. doi: 10.1037/a0019265, Jones, D. N., and Figueredo, A. J. Rev. 2. Bless her heart. My neighbor will sure have her hands full with another baby on the way, so close to the youngest. Participants have to consult their autobiographical memory to identify relevant behavioral events, and, in addition, remember in detail the reasons for this behavior (e.g., Sudman et al., 1996). One strength of the present study is that it extends previous research through the comprehensive assessment of gossip reasons. doi: 10.1177/1059601109360389. Gossip appears to serve predominantly entertainment purposes whereas social curiosity appears to be more driven by a general interest in gathering information about how other people feel, think, and behave and the need to belong. Psychologists have traditionally looked to the "Big Five" personality traits -- which consist of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience -- as a means of taking a thorough assessment of a person's attitudes and behaviors. Social Neuroscience, 10, 320-336. If this explanation sounds overwhelming, the good news is that it's time to get practical. Individ. It refers to the "prohibition of telling gossip, truthful remarks about a non-present person or party.". First, share personal requests. Fourth, in the Motives to Gossip Questionnaire participants are asked to think about their reasons to gossip in a specific situation capturing their motivation to gossip in that situation. However, only four participants had missing values between 28.60 and 35.70%. Why people gossip: an empirical analysis of social motives, antecedents, and consequences. Soc. According to God, a lot. Finally, he told me why: Ill eventually work out issues with people and move on, but if you know who they are, youre perception of them will forever be tainted.. Personality is a complicated construct influenced by many factors. Sign up for our newsletter and follow us on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. In other words, people without anything to do will eventually start talking about you. The Dirty Dozen scale captures narcissism (e.g., I tend to want others to admire me.), Machiavellianism (e.g., I tend to manipulate others to get my way.), and psychopathy (e.g., I tend to be callous or insensitive.) with four items for each subscale. Empirical findings have shown that people take the presumed motivation of a gossiper into account when judging the morality of the respective gossiper, for instance (Beersma and Van Kleef, 2012). In a similar vein, the dark side of personality probably has a high impact on gossip motives that serve individual purposes. This way, to gain social comparison information minimizes the potential psychological cost. Excluding these participants from analysis did not change the results. 27, 169184. More specifically, respondents may deliberately ignore information that has already been provided in response to previous question (Schwarz and Bless, 1991; Schwarz et al., 1991; Schwarz, 1999). Why are narcissists so charming at first sight? The dirty dozen: a concise measure of the dark triad. In the present study, the importance of gossip motives did not differ substantially between work and private situations. Peng, X., Li, Y., Wang, P., Mo, L., & Chen, Q. Mannheim: Zentrum fr Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen -ZUMA-. Shes the author of Seek: A Womans Guide to Meeting God, Raising Kids with Good Manners, and Taming Your Family Zoo, and has been a guest on numerous radio and television shows including Focus on the Family, At Home, Live! What have you done for me lately? I just hope her new job doesnt affect her family. Received: 23 November 2018; Accepted: 02 May 2019; Published: 29 May 2019. Its more difficult for real people to grow and change their personality traits (Wouldnt it be nice if we could resolve our biggest personality flaws in a few pages?). 9, 189201. Narcissism and social networking web sites. Missing data: our view of the state of the art. A reciprocal influence model of social power: emerging principles and lines of inquiry. Supporting the bad reputation, some researchers suggest that gossip is a covert form of aggression (i.e., non-confrontational) especially used by women (e.g., McAndrew, 2014). Soc. Br. 19. Thus, the bad reputation might also have a positive social function itself. How the grapevine keeps you in line: gossip increases contributions to the group. Gossip differs from the human tendency to talk about other people in that gossip focuses on negative information. The co-evolution of gossip and friendship in workplace social networks. 7 Ticking Time Bombs That Destroy Loving Relationships, An Addiction Myth That Needs to Be Revisited, 5 Spiritual Practices That Increase Well-Being. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.07.019, Baumeister, R. F. (1997). First, we aim to examine the reasons for people to engage in gossip, replicating the study of Beersma and Van Kleef (2012). 1. Individ. The models predicting information gathering (BF10 = 0.35), protection (BF10 = 0.03), and social enjoyment (BF10 = 0.73) show anecdotal to very strong evidence for the H0 indicating that the data are more likely under the model that assumes no relationship than under the model including the three personality traits. Bullying: from the playground to the boardroom. Pers. However, this difference between work and private setting has to be interpreted with care as different F-test corrections come to different results and the Bayes analyses show that the data get more support when including only motive as predictor in the model. Psychol. 8, 231246. 73, 2938. personality traits of a gossip 12, 177196. The chi-square statistic was significant for the work setting (2(120) = 190.92, p < 0.001) but not for the private setting 2(120) = 131.37, p = 0.22). Manag. Together the evidence suggests that gossip may play an important role in maintaining social order, Willer says. Using gossip to negatively influence the reputation of the target person is related to narcissism and Machiavellianism. London: faber and faber. Bonferroni adjusted post-hoc analysis showed that social enjoyment was a more important motive in private situations than in work-related situations (private M = 3.08, SD = 1.84 vs. work M = 2.58, SD = 1.80; p < 0.001). A. 16:293. doi: 10.1037/a0020773, Wisse, B., and Sleebos, E. (2016). Likewise, individuals might use gossip in order to negatively influence the reputation of a target person, and, without intention, simultaneously serve the social function of group protection. Therefore, corrected F-values are reported (Huynh-Feldt). J. Pers. 12, 97110. Fifth, because of the relatively small sample size of N = 134 the power of the analysis might have been reduced resulting in a higher probability of type-II error. Am. If the information being talked about were positive, it would be labeled praise or envy. The motive to warn and protect a conversational partner appears to be of similar importance as relationship building and enjoyment. Other research shows that in comparison to more psychopathic and more Machiavellian individuals, more narcissistic individuals tend to use more soft tactics to influence others (Jonason et al., 2012). It is a meta-analysis of gossip as a behavior, not a study. Baumeister et al. (2013). Mark Travers, Ph.D., is an American psychologist with degrees from Cornell University and the University of Colorado Boulder. The DSM-5 lists nine key narcissistic traits: exaggerated feelings of superiority and self-importance. To start, they report that just about everyone gossips a lot.